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vapour pressure condensate (Clause 16);

j) updating of the requirements for leak detection on liquid hydrocarbon pipelines done in Update 3 (August 2013) to Z662-11. The recommended practice considers computational methods and direct leak detection methods (Annex E);

k) expansion of Annex M to address system control, monitoring, and protection for all hydrocarbon pipelines; and

l) new Annex P to provide guidance on the development of qualification of welding procedure specifications.

The requirements of this Standard are considered to be adequate under conditions normally encountered in the oil and natural gas industry. Specific requirements for abnormal or unusual conditions are not prescribed, nor are all details related to engineering and construction prescribed. It is intended that all work performed within the scope of this Standard meet the standards of safety and integrity expressed or implied herein, and that the requirements of this Standard be applied with due regard to the protection of the environment, which includes land, water, plant life, and animal life. Detailed requirements concerning the protection of the environment are not prescribed.

It is expected that changes will be made from time to time, based on new experience and technology. Where necessary, amendments and supplements will be prepared by the Technical Committee and published in accordance with CSA Group practices.

This Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee on Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry Pipeline Systems and Materials, under the jurisdiction of the Strategic Steering Committee on Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry Systems, and has been formally approved by the Technical Committee.

Scope

1.1
This Standard covers the design, construction, operation, maintenance, deactivation, and abandonment of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that convey

a) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas;

b) oilfield water;

c) oilfield steam;

d) liquid or dense phase carbon dioxide; or

e) gas.

Notes:

1) Vapour phase carbon dioxide pipeline systems fall under Item (e).

2) Designers are cautioned that the requirements in this Standard might not be appropriate for gases other than natural gas, manufactured gas, vapour phases carbon, or synthetic natural gas.

1.2
The scope of this Standard, as shown in Figures 1.1 and 1.2, includes

a) for oil industry fluids, piping and equipment in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, tank farms, pump stations, pressure-regulating stations, and measuring stations;

b) oil pump stations, pipeline tank farms, and pipeline terminals;

c) pipe-type storage vessels;

d) carbon dioxide pipeline;

e) for gas industry fluids, piping and equipment in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, compressor stations, measuring stations, and pressure-regulating stations;

f) gas compressor stations; and

g) gas storage lines and pipe-type and bottle-type gas storage vessels.

1.3
This Standard does not apply to

a) piping with metal temperatures below –70 °C;

b) gas piping beyond the outlet of the customer’s meter set assembly (covered by CAN/CSA-B149.1);

c) piping in natural gas liquids extraction plants, gas processing plants (except main gas stream piping in dehydration and all other processing plants installed as part of gas pipeline systems), gas manufacturing plants, industrial plants, and mines;

d) oil refineries, terminals other than pipeline terminals, and marketing bulk plants;

e) abandoned piping;

f) in-plant piping for drinking, make-up, or boiler feed water;

g) casing, tubing, or pipe in oil or gas wells, wellheads, separators, production tanks, and other production facilities;

h) vent piping for waste gases of any kind operating at or near atmospheric pressure;

i) heat exchangers;

j) liquefied natural gas systems (covered by CAN/CSA-Z276);

k) liquid fuel distribution systems;

l) loading/unloading facilities for tankers or barges;

m) refuelling facilities; and

n) hydrocarbon storage in underground formations and associated equipment (covered by CSA Z341 Series).

1.4
This Standard is intended to establish essential requirements and minimum standards for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems. This Standard is not a design handbook, and competent engineering judgment should be employed with its use.

Note: For steel pipe of grade higher than Grade 555, requirements in addition to those specified in this Standard might be needed. Matters that should be considered include joining, thermal aging effects during coating application, strain capacity (including cold bending), pressure testing, assessment of imperfections, and repair.

1.5

1.5.1
The requirements of this Standard are applicable to the operation, maintenance, and upgrading of existing installations; however, except as required by Clause 1.5.2, it is not intended that such requirements be applied retroactively to existing installations insofar as design, materials, construction, and established operating pressures are concerned.

1.5.2
Except as allowed by Clause 10.7.1, where class locations change as a result of an increase in population or location development, the requirements of this Standard relative to design factor, location factor, valve spacing, depth of cover and clearance, pressure testing, repair methods and repair criteria for the higher class location are applicable to existing installations.

1.6
Unless otherwise stated, to determine conformance with the specified requirements, it is intended that observed or calculated values be rounded to the nearest unit in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with the rounding method of ASTM E29.

1.7
Where any requirements of this Standard are at variance with the requirements of other publications referenced in this Standard, it is intended that the requirements of this Standard govern.

1.8
It is not the intent of this Standard to prevent the development of new equipment or practices, or to prescribe how such innovations are to be handled.

1.9
In this Standard, “shall” is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; “should” is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and “may” is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.

Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.

Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.

Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.